Toronto’s taxi industry has been a mess for more than 50 years. As a passenger, you feel it as soon as you slide your bum onto the vinyl backseat and see the starting fare of $4.25. The meter quickly rolls higher as you lurch through stop-and-go traffic while listening to your driver blather away on his Bluetooth. For this dubious service, Torontonians pay more than taxi customers in New York and Los Angeles.
If it’s any consolation, your driver is equally ticked off. Despite the high price paid by riders, the average cabbie working a 12- to 14-hour shift is lucky to take home $75—after paying for the car, gas and dispatch fees. A 2008 academic study conducted by professors at Ryerson and U of T found that shift drivers, who rent their cabs from plate owners on a daily or weekly basis, can make less than $3 an hour. People in the taxi industry claim there are 1,000 too many cabs on the road, which is killing the drivers’ ability to make a living. Toronto currently has approximately one cab for every 520 people, whereas a decade ago, we had one for every 1,000.
Whenever politicians try to fix our troubled taxi industry, they inevitably make it worse. Yet city hall is wading in once again, with Councillor Cesar Palacio, chair of the licensing and standards committee, heading up a 10-month review that will attempt to resolve some long-standing grievances among drivers.
The last review, led by Howard Moscoe and Denzil Minnan-Wong in 1998, sought to eliminate the jalopies from the city’s fleet. Back then, there was only one class of taxi licence, the Standard plate, of which there were 3,480 in operation. Licence holders could either drive a cab themselves or rent the plate out to secondary drivers. The system gave rise to a class of investor-owners, some of whom acquired dozens of licences that could later be sold on the open market. Complaints of driver exploitation were common, and the shortage of owner-operators was blamed for poorly maintained cars and low-quality service.
In order to ensure drivers were more invested in the state of their cars, councillors Moscoe and Minnan-Wong added a new class of licence, the Ambassador plate. The new plates were exclusively owner-operated and could not be resold. Those cabbies who bought into the program (there are currently 1,313 of them) naively believed that owning their own business would be the path to freedom. Instead, they became slaves to their cars. Whereas Standard licence owners can profit handsomely by leasing or selling their plates—the going rate is as much as $300,000—Ambassador owners can’t even loan their cabs out while they’re sick or on vacation.
Today, the divide between the Standard and Ambassador licensees is so stark, it’s led to accusations of racism. Asafo Addai, an Ambassador cabbie, and his lawyer, Peter Rosenthal, argue that the two-tiered program is discriminatory, with most Ambassador plate holders being from visible minorities, while the Standard plate holders are largely white. Their case is currently awaiting a decision from the Ontario human rights tribunal. I expect they’ll lose, as cabbies are simply victims of bad timing, not discrimination. New drivers are usually recent immigrants.
In 1998, when the Ambassador class was created, Toronto was experiencing an influx of African and South Asian immigrants. Go back a few decades and, according to Rosenthal, taxi drivers were predominantly Jewish, Hungarian or Greek.
So what’s the fix? During the 2010 election, Rob Ford made overtures about ending Toronto’s two-tiered system, and many cabbies believe he’ll collapse the two licence categories into one. But exactly how he’ll do this is anyone’s guess. TaxiNews, which services the city’s 10,000 cab drivers, has been filled with more rumours than the sports pages at NHL trade deadline time. One suggestion is a buyback scheme, in which the city would pay to eliminate the Standard plates, but this would be way too costly: can you imagine politicians spending millions of taxpayer dollars to pay off Standard drivers, while at the same time making cuts to TTC service and the High Park Zoo? Another way to even the playing field is to simply convert Ambassador licences to the gold-plated Standard version, but this is unlikely, too. Not only would it devalue the original Standard plates, but it would cause an all-out revolt among those who have spent their life savings to buy one. Rosenthal, for his part, wants the city to implement a new rule requiring that all cabs be owner-operated, thereby ousting investors who aren’t driving to survive. That would benefit lawyers, at least, who would get rich suing the city on behalf of plate holders who’d lost their income streams.